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Verbi di Movimento – Part 2
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Verbi di Movimento – Part 2
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Jun 2012
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In Part 1 of this post I looked at which verbs of movement use the auxiliary essere and which use avere to form the passato prossimo. In Part 2 we’ll be looking at movement verbs that can use either essere or avere in the passato prossimo. Most of these verbs use essere when followed by a preposition such as per (through/by), da (from), su (on), etc., and avere when followed by a direct object. To clarify this I’ve highlighted the constructions with essere in red, and those with avere in blue.

For example, if I want to say “to get to Florence we passed by Lucca” I use essere because ‘siamo passati’ (we passed) is followed by the preposition ‘per’ (by), hence: per andare a Firenze siamo passati per Lucca. If on the other hand I want to say “we’ve just passed the exit for Lucca” I use avere because ‘abbiamo appena passato’ (we have just passed) is followed by the direct object ‘lo svincolo’ (the exit), hence: abbiamo appena passato lo svincolo per Lucca. Here are some more examples:

discendere (to descend, to go down), e.g.siamo discesi a valle (we went down into the valley); abbiamo disceso la montagna (we went down the mountain)

salire (to climb, to go up), e.g. Marco è salito su di sopra (Marco has gone upstairs); Marco ha salito i gradini di corsa (Marco climbed the steps in a hurry)

scendere (to go down), e.g. sono scesa dall’albero a fatica (I got down from the the tree with difficulty); ho sceso la scala a pioli a fatica (I came down the ladder with difficulty)

saltare (to jump), e.g. i ladri sono saltati dal muro (the burglars jumped from the wall); i ladri hanno saltato il muro (the burglars jumped the wall).

Correre (to run) is slightly different: it’s constructed with essere when the destination is expressed or implied, and with avere when it describes the action of running, e.g. appena saputo dell’incidente, Marco è corso all’ospedale (as soon as he found out about the accident, Marco ran to the hospital); sono stanchissima, ho corso tutto il giorno senza mai fermarmi (I’m very tired, I’ve run around all day without ever stopping); Giovanni ha corso la Maratona di Londra (Marco ran the London Marathon).

Finally, there are a few verbs of movement that can be used with either of the auxiliary verbs, without changing their meaning or construction. The most common ones are:

atterrare (to land), e.g. l’aereo è già atterrato or l’aereo ha già atterrato (the plane has already landed)

decollare (to take off), e.g. l’aereo è decollato in ritardo or l’aereo ha decollato in ritardo (the plane took off late)

inciampare (to trip), e.g. sono inciampata nel gradino or ho inciampato nel gradino (I tripped on the step)

indietreggiare (to draw back), e.g.sono indietreggiata alla vista del cane or ho indietreggiato alla vista del cane (I drew back when I saw the dog)

procedere (to proceed), e.g. siamo proceduti a fatica a causa della nebbia or abbiamo proceduto a fatica a causa della nebbia (we proceeded with difficulty because of the fog)

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06-20-2012 07:33 AM
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